Analog to Digital Converter. A device which converts an Analog signal to a digital form. The process may be done with different levels of accuracy. The conversion fidelity is dependent on two factors - sampling rate and number of bits. The higher the rate and/or bits used during conversion, the more accurately the analog signal is reproduced. Until recently, the most common video sampling speed was four times the color subcarrier frequency (4xFsc - 17.7 Msamples/sec for PAL 14.3 Msamples/sec for NTSC) Today, the standard (industrial and broadcast) tends to be 13.5 Msamples/sec for luminance signals. For color difference signals it is usually half for both PAL and NTSC. Industrial video signals are digitized at 8-bit accuracy (256 levels) while broadcast signals are digitized at 10-bit accuracy (1024 levels) or even at 12 bit. Hi-Fi audio signals are usually sampled at double the highest frequency audible to the human ear, i.e., 20 kHz (or more - sampling at 44 kHz or even higher frequencies) with an accuracy of 16 bits or more.
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