BACK PORCH
BALANCED SIGNAL
BANDWIDTH
BANDWIDTH COMPRESSION
BASEBAND VIDEO
BER
BETA (MAX)
BETACAM
BETACAM-SX
BLACK BURST
BLACK BURST GENERATOR
BLACK LEVEL
BLACK LEVEL CLAMPING
BLACKER THAN BLACK
BLANKING RETRACE PERIOD
BLOOMING
BLUE KEY
BLUETOOTH
BMP
BNC
BOOST-CUT
BORDER
BOTTLES
BOUNCE SIGNAL
BREEZWAY
BURST
BURST GATE
BYPASSING
BACK PORCH
A part of the composite video signal which is between the trailing edge of the horizontal sync and the beginning of the corresponding active video line (end of horizontal blanking).
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BALANCED SIGNAL
A signal that is divided into two antiphase signals, traveling on two wires (and sometimes with a third - a ground reference wire). Transmitting a balanced signal achieves better signal to noise ratio, and the signal is more immune to noise and interference. The receiving end requires a differential amplifier, which amplifies only the differences between the antiphase signals, thus canceling noise picked up on the way. The balanced system is used either when very low signals are to be transmitted over long distances (such as those generated from high quality microphones) or at broadcast audio studios for highest quality signal recreation. The balanced signal system is used in TP (Twisted Pair) wire setups when it is essential to use non-coaxial wires for data, video, audio or graphics transmissions.
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BANDWIDTH
See Video Bandwidth.
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BANDWIDTH COMPRESSION
A process that reduces digital signal bandwidth in order to allow its transmission as a DTV signal. A 6 MHz transmission bandwidth requires signal bandwidth compression down to about 20 Mbits/sec.
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BASEBAND VIDEO
Normally refers to a non-modulated composite video signal, with the frequency spectrum extending from a few Hertz (or from DC) up to several MHz, and covering the full bandwidth of the video signal.
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BER
Bit Error Rate. A term used in digital circuits for measuring the fidelity of a transmitted and received digital signal by measuring the error probability (or number of bits received incorrectly.)
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BETA (MAX)
A video recording and playback standard on 1/2'' tapes distributed mainly by Sony™. From its inception BETAMAX competed with the VHS system developed by JVC™. Both were intended for home use and there was no substantial difference between the two formats. Today, the Betamax system for home video is practically non-existent as that market is completely dominated by the VHS system.
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BETACAM
BETACAM and BETACAM SP are wide-spread professional video recording and playback formats. BETACAM uses 1/2 inch tapes, employing the component video system for highest professional quality outputs. Many editing systems and controllers are designed around this format.
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BETACAM-SX
A digital video format introduced by SONY™. This format uses MPEG compression with a data rate of 18Mbits/sec. The compression ratio is high - approaching 10:1. Output quality is very good despite the high compression ratio because it uses an MPEG-2 4:2:2 profile. Cassettes use metal particle technology and come in two sizes - 60 minutes for fieldwork and 184 minutes for studios. These VCRs also play analog Beta tapes, for backward compatibility.
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BLACK BURST
A video signal comprising sync and color burst signals which produces a black image on the screen. It is used to genlock other video sources to the same sync and color information. Black burst generators are used in video studios to genlock an entire studio to the same signal for easier switching and mixing between sources.
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BLACK BURST GENERATOR
See SPG.
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BLACK LEVEL
That level of the DC voltage of a particular part of the video signal which corresponds to the black areas in a video scene. The black level is used as a reference for comparison with other tones in the picture and other video signals.
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BLACK LEVEL CLAMPING
An electronic process which establishes a fixed DC level for a picture signal at the beginning of each scanning line. The black level of a video signal is set to a specific, predefined DC voltage. This process is used, for example, when two video signals are to be mixed and the black levels must therefore be equal.
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BLACKER THAN BLACK
Designation of a video signal, part of which (spikes or the sync tip) goes below black level transition. Usually, such signals (besides the sync), are undesirable within the video signal. They appear, however, due to image enhancement or poor transition response of the video amplifier or processor. If the signal excursions below black level are small, they can be ignored. If they are too large, approaching sync tip level, image instability might occur, as the blacker than black spikes may be interpreted as sync pulses. Sometimes those excursions are deliberately created for image enhancement and special effects and copy protection purposes. Digital processing can handle some blacker than black signals.
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BLANKING RETRACE PERIOD
The period when the screen is darkened, which occurs when the electron ray in a monitor or a TV set retraces to start a new line or a new field. The instantaneous amplitude of that signal is such that it makes the return trace invisible. The blanking period is used to eliminate the appearance of the CRT retrace beam so it will not be visible on the monitor. Switching done during the retrace period results in ''clean switching''. (See Vertical Interval Switching.)
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BLOOMING
(рус. Ореол)
A disturbing phenomena apparent when a part of the video picture becomes “brighter than white” due to wrong exposure or due to a very strong light source shining directly into the camera lens. The blooming effect distorts the colors and the fine details of the area affected by the strong light. This effect can also be seen when a color decoder chip within a TV set or monitor is badly tuned or malfunctions. In order to check whether the blooming effect is a result of a badly illuminated scene or a malfunctioning monitor, the signal should be fed to another good monitor. If the effect persists, it shows that the video source is defective.
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BLUE KEY
Blue key generation is a process, which inserts of one video picture into a predetermined area in another one, through the use of special hardware. The primary picture is shot with the subject against a special blue tinted background. The blue content of this signal is then removed and the second picture is inserted in that area where the blue background was located. Blue keying is a very important special effect, which is often used in news broadcasting where pictures of the news being discussed are viewed on a screen behind the anchorman. An extension of the Blue Key is the Chroma Key.
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BLUETOOTH
A technology used for wireless transfer of data over a short distance. The technology uses a 2.4 GHz carrier, and is suitable for short distances up to 10 meters (30 feet). It allows for low speed data transmission, up to 720 Kbps. The technology can be used to transfer control data in a video studio, replacing RS-232 wires, as it can work through walls. It can also be used for access control and short-range user ID.
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BMP
A simple graphics Bit Map format created by Microsoft™ for the Windows™ program. Many graphics programs running under Windows, which support formats from monochrome up to 24-bit color, use the BMP format. The BMP format does not support image file compression, so 24-bit, high-resolution color images occupy a large amount of disk space.
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BNC
A type of connector used for high frequency signals in VCRs, general video equipment and RF equipment.
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BOOST-CUT
The Bi-directional control of audio and video signals to permit raising and lowering of signal levels.
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BORDER
(рус. Граница)
The boundary between two merged video pictures, such as in blue keying or wiping. Bordering is a special effect which can be used in video processing to alter the border from a sharply defined line to a fuzzy ill-defined blend of the two pictures. The width of the border, its color and its texture are easily changed
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BOTTLES
Color identification signals in the vertical interval period used in the older SECAM system which look like bottles on the oscilloscope.
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BOUNCE SIGNAL
A special, artificially generated video signal for testing, where the APL is changed at a low rate, testing the low frequency response of a video device as well as black level clamping.
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BREEZWAY
A part of the video signal which belongs to the blanking period, extending from the rising edge of the horizontal sync signal and the beginning of the color burst signal.
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BURST
(рус. Вспышка)
See Color Burst.
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BURST GATE
The signal generated in many video processors starting at the outset of the color burst signal and ending at the end of that signal. This burst gate signal is mainly used for black level clamping and DC restoration.
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BYPASSING
(рус. Обход)
Monitoring an unprocessed video signal. For example, when using a screen splitter, special effects generation is often previewed on a screen before actual recording. The processed signal is observed on half the screen and on the other half, the unprocessed, bypassed signal is viewed for comparison.
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