FADING
FCC
FIBER OPTICS
FIREWIRE (iLINK)
FLI/FLC
FLICKER
FLOPPY DISK
FORMAT (VIDEO)
FOUR Fsc (4Fsc)
FOUR:FOUR:FOUR (4:4:4)
FOUR:TWO:TWO (4:2:2)
FOUR:ZERO:ZERO (4:0:0)
FRAME GRABBER
FRAME SYNCHRONIZER
FREEZE FRAME
FREQUENCY MODULATION
FREQUENCY RESPONSE
FREQUENCY SYNTHESIS
FRONT PORCH
FADING
In video, fading deliberately diminishes the video picture until it becomes totally black. Fading a video image is often used as an artistic tool in video productions. For example, gradually replacing one scene with another by cross fading. In audio, fading decreases the level of the signal until it is no longer heard. Audio fading is often used together with video fading resulting in the sound and image disappearing simultaneously.
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FCC
Federal Communications Commission. An American governmental authority, which sets rules, related to communication, electrical interference, etc.
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FIBER OPTICS
A medium made of translucent fibers with appropriate interfaces for transmitting analog and digital signals. Light is used to represent the signals. The original signals are recovered to recreate the electronic signals at the far end of the fiber. The optical fiber system provides high electrical isolation between transmitter and receiver, as well as immunity to electromagnetic and static interference. The signal loss in a fiber optics system is usually smaller than in coax cables, and so optic fibers are often used to carry signals over very long distances (tens and hundreds of kilometers.)
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FIREWIRE (iLINK)
See IEEE 1394.
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FLI/FLC
Animation flick files created by Autodesk™ software, such as Animator™ or Animator Pro. The FLI/FLC file system contains a series of consecutive compressed frames or images that can be replayed as an animation sequence using a special program. This format is widely used in computer generated animations and in clips used for video.
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FLICKER
Annoying visual phenomena mainly related to the interlacing of video fields, which show up as small vibrations on the screen. Flicker also appears when static images are displayed on the screen, as in computer generated text when transferred to video. Poor digital image treatment, as in low priced standard converters (going between PAL and NTSC), will create an annoying flicker on the screen. There are several electronic techniques to minimize flicker, such as line averaging and filtering.
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FLOPPY DISK
An almost obsolete magnetic storage device used in computers. Floppy disks store mainly digital data, text and graphics, and computer programs. Floppy disks came in two major sizes: 5 1/4 inch and 3 1/2 inch. The 3-1/2 inch disks are more rigid than the 5 1/4-inch version. Both were subdivided into low density (double density) and high-density types, storing 360KBytes and 1.2MBytes on the 5 1/4-inch format, and 720Kbytes and 1.44Mbytes on the 3 1/2-inch format. Some developments in this field have extended storage on a 3 1/2-inch disk to 2.8MBytes and above. In comparison to hard disks, the advantages of floppy disks are low price and portability, while the disadvantages are slow access time and limited storage. New media formats - magnetic and optic based - are replacing the floppy disks, having much larger storage capacities (from hundreds of megabytes up to several gigabytes), faster access times and ever lower prices.
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FORMAT (VIDEO)
There is an enormous variety of video formats. They vary in tape width - 4mm, 8mm, 1/2 inch, 3/4 inch, 1 inch, etc., in signal formats - composite, YC and component video, and in operation - analog or digital. In addition, digital formats themselves take various forms - no single standard prevails. Also, all formats exist in PAL, NTSC and SECAM and their sub-standards, which implies that any video production studio requires an extensive range of interface devices to enable equipment designed for a specific format to work with devices designed for other formats.
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FOUR Fsc (4Fsc)
The sampling rate of composite video signals as a multiple of color subcarrier frequency. In PAL 4Fsc is about 17.73 MHz and in NTSC it is about 14.31MHz.
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FOUR:FOUR:FOUR (4:4:4)
A term used in digital component video formats and interfaces. The term describes 3 full bandwidth channels, like R, G, B, each being digitized at 4Fsc.
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FOUR:TWO:TWO (4:2:2)
A term used in digital component video formats and interfaces. 4:2:2 states the ratio of the sampling rate of the luminance channel (it was 4xFsc, and is now 13.5 Ms/s) to the rate of sampling of the two color difference signals (it was 2xFsc each, and is now 6.75 Ms/s). Sampling the color information at lower rates is allowed due to the limited bandwidth of color information. This is one of the formats of the CCIR 601 recommendations.
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FOUR:ZERO:ZERO (4:0:0)
A monochrome video format, mainly used for key signals in a video production studio.
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FRAME GRABBER
An electronic device that captures a video frame or field and stores it on a digital storage device, e.g., hard disk, memory card, floppy disk etc.
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FRAME SYNCHRONIZER
An electronic device utilizing digital technology, with several video inputs. The frame synchronizer synchronizes and genlocks sync and color of one input to those of another. After frame synchronization, the two video images can be blended, wiped and processed as they use the same sync and color subcarrier frequencies and the same phase. See also TBC.
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FREEZE FRAME
A process which catches and freezes one TV/video frame on the screen. Freeze frame can be done in an electromechanical way, by stopping the VCR’s tape advance and re-scanning the same frame over and over again, or by electronic means by storing the whole frame in digital-chip memories. Digital freeze-frame is one of special effects that are performed by a special effects generator or a TBC.
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FREQUENCY MODULATION
When a low frequency signal modulates (changes) the frequency of an RF signal of a much higher frequency (causing it to move around the basic carrier frequency) - the process is called frequency modulation or FM. This system is extensively used in broadcast radio transmission, as it retains high signal quality. FM is used in video to record signals on videotape. The FM system is less prone to interference and is therefore used in higher quality equipment.
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FREQUENCY RESPONSE
The maximum signal bandwidth handled by an electronic device, which is a measure of the quality of reproduction of various or extreme frequencies within the band. If the frequency response of a video processor, for example, is adequate, there is no discernable deterioration in picture quality at the edges of the spectrum and no fine details or color are lost. In Hi-Fi audio reproduction, frequency response should extend up to 20,000 Hz, the practical limit of human hearing. The frequency response plot not only measures the extreme edges of the frequencies handled but also linearity and fidelity throughout the whole spectrum.
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FREQUENCY SYNTHESIS
A term used in radio frequency transmissions for the generation of a stabilized high frequency signal. The frequency steps are derived from a crystal-stabilized frequency. Using a chain of switches, a wide range of high frequency signals can be generated from the same low frequency crystal oscillator. This process is mainly used in complex broadcast equipment for RF modulation and transmission.
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FRONT PORCH
A part of the composite video signal which resides in the blanking period, between the end of the active line (the leading edge of the horizontal blanking period) and the leading edge of the horizontal sync.
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