PAL (Phase Alternation Line)
PALPLUS
PATCH PANEL
PCX
PEAKING
PEDESTAL
PHANTOM VOLTAGE
PHASE ERROR
PICT/PCT/PIC
PICTURE BORDER SOFTNESS
PICTURE ELEMENT / PIXEL
PICTURE SHARPNESS
PIP
PIXEL
PLAYBACK
PLENUM CABLE
PORCH - FRONT/BACK
POST-PRODUCTION
POSTERIZATION
Pr / Pb
PRE-ENHANCEMENT
PREVIEW BUS
PRIMARY COLORS
PROCESSING AMPLIFIER (ProcAmp)
PROGRAM BUS
PROGRESSIVE SCAN
PULL-DOWN
PAL (Phase Alternation Line)
The European color TV broadcasting standard featuring 625 lines per frame and 50 frames per second. It has a more complex color encoding system than NTSC, but provides better color fidelity and better resolution.
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PALPLUS
A widescreen TV standard (16:9 format) used mainly in Europe for creating a \''better-looking\'' image on the screen. It employs special technology for color and luminance image enhancement and resembles the HDTV format. It shows as a letterbox on a regular TV.
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PATCH PANEL
A connector panel facilitating wired cross connection of signals (eg. video, audio, CAT 5).
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PCX
A graphics file format developed by Zsoft Corp. This format, which is raster based, supports graphics from monochrome up to 24-bit color (16 million colors).
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PEAKING
Similar to EQ./Equalization. An electronic compensation process for high frequency signal losses in long cables. Peaking restores image crispness, and different cable lengths require different peaking.
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PEDESTAL
A small DC step (sometimes called setup), within the video signal separating active video from the blanking level, which indicates the picture’s black-level. It is used as a reference in a standard video signal for the white level and all the gray levels in between. Only NTSC uses a pedestal - usually a 7.5 IRE step.
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PHANTOM VOLTAGE
An electrical voltage supplied to a condenser type microphone to power its built-in circuitry. The voltages applied can be up to 48 volts DC, depending on the microphone characteristics. If a phantom voltage is applied erroneously, damage may be caused to the system or the microphone.
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PHASE ERROR
A change in the color subcarrier signal whereby its timing is moved out of phase, i.e., occurring at a different instant relative to the original signal. Since color information is encoded in a video signal as a ratio between the modulated color signal and the color burst phase, a deviation in the color subcarrier phase results in a change in the hue of the picture. In NTSC video transmission, phase error results in a substantial change in the hue. In PAL, small changes in hue are automatically corrected, and only a minor reduction in color saturation occurs. The hue remains consistent.
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PICT/PCT/PIC
The most popular Macintosh graphics file format, bitmap based, supporting from monochrome up to 24-bit color images.
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PICTURE BORDER SOFTNESS
A border created while one video image is ins erted in to a designated area in another (in a circle, rectangle or almost any other shape) by using a special effects generator or another keyer. This border between the two images can vary from a sharp line to a vague blending of images between the two pictures. One of the features in special effects generators is picture border (edge) control. It allows the user to control both the color and the sharpness or fuzziness (softness) of the border between the two images.
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PICTURE ELEMENT / PIXEL
The smallest \''dot\'' on the TV or monitor screen usually comprised of tri-color dots: red, green and blue. The PIXEL size is a measure of the screens maximal apparent resolution.
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PICTURE SHARPNESS
The quantity of fine details in a video picture. A picture appears sharp when it contains fine details, extended micro-contrast (the distinction between fine details and the surrounding background) and sharp, thin edges. Picture sharpness is easily lost during the recording process and, to a lesser extent, during playback. Advanced video enhancement equipment is used to improve picture sharpness, especially micro-contrast. Potential losses, which might damage an image during video processing, are automatically pre-compensated. Although picture sharpness is a subjective factor, it is technically measurable as the ratio between high frequency signals (about 2 MHz) and low frequency signals. In the digital domain, the apparent picture sharpness corresponds exactly to that of the source signal, and if affected, it is usually due to the monitors ability to resolve picture details.
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PIP
Picture-In-Picture. A digitally based method of inserting one video image into another for special effects purposes and for monitoring several video images simultaneously on one screen (several PIP units can be used together each compressing an image into the main screen in a different location).
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PIXEL
(рус. Пиксел)
See Picture Element.
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PLAYBACK
The process whereby a videotape on some other video source (DVD, etc.) is displayed on the monitor. During playback, analog or digital video enhancement, carried out on a video processor, can be incorporated into the signal to alter, correct or restore it.
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PLENUM CABLE
A cable with a fire-resistant covering, meeting UL specs.
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PORCH - FRONT/BACK
A short period of time, of several microseconds, before and after the sync pulse that is a part of the blanking period, riding on blanking signal level. The porch can be used for clamping purposes, as it does not carry visible picture information.
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POST-PRODUCTION
All the editing work done with crude video material in the studio after filming. Editing, special effects insertion, image enhancement, and other processes enriching and fine-tuning the production are done in a studio during post-production.
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POSTERIZATION
The conversion of a standard video image into a picture which consists of a few large single-colored areas. Graduations of fine color and brightness are totally removed. The result is a crude, harsh image. This is a typical special effect available on special effects generators.
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Pr / Pb
A color difference signal representing a scaling formula for B-Y and R-Y signals. By using the appropriate formula, 700mVpp of Pr and Pb represent a 100% saturation level in component video.
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PRE-ENHANCEMENT
In many cases, through acquaintance with video equipment, tapes and cables, a user anticipates video losses. Therefore, he can introduce video enhancement into the video signal in advance to compensate and restore the original unattenuated and undistorted signal (See also Line Compensation).
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PREVIEW BUS
A standard function on video special effects generators which allows the operator to select any of the video sources attached to the device and preview all special effects before he begins video processing. The preview bus is operated through a series of switches on the special effects generator, each of which is assigned to a specific input. Each input signal can be previewed on its own monitor by pressing the relevant switch. This is a rapid and effective method to check work before going on the air.
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PRIMARY COLORS
The basic colors used in TV and video systems – Red, Green and Blue.
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PROCESSING AMPLIFIER (ProcAmp)
An electronic device which is designed to change parameters in a video or audio signal. A video ProcAmp, for example, has color saturation, hue, brightness, contrast and/or definition control.
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PROGRAM BUS
Similar to the preview bus. It is also operated through a series of switches, each of which is assigned to a specific input device (special effects generator, routing switcher, etc.) One or more input signals can be chosen to be mixed or simultaneously processed in another fashion. The processed output of the program bus is the final product, which goes on the air or to the final edit cut.
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PROGRESSIVE SCAN
A non-interlaced scan, providing all the video/graphics lines in a frame consisting of one field instead of two fields – odd and even, thus reducing the flicker in the visible image.
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PULL-DOWN
While a film is converted to video using a Telecine machine for example, it is necessary to match the film frame rates and the video frame rates. The process used for NTSC is called 3:2 Pull-down, and for PAL it is called a 2:2 Pull-down. Due to the complexity of the process, digital artifacts are often generated. A good quality Scaler automatically detects the Pull-down process and corrects the flaws to generate a clean, jagged-free image.
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