S/PDIF
SAV
SAW FILTER
SAW MODULATOR
SCALER
SCALING
SCAN CONVERTER
SCART
SCREEN SPLITTER
SDI
SDI CHECK SIGNAL
SDTV
SEAMLESS SWITCHING
SECAM
SEPIA
SERIAL PORT
SERIAL TO PARALLEL CONVERTER
SERRATIONS
SERVO
SHUTTLE
SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO
SINE X/X
SKEWING
SMPTE
SMPTE 125M
SMPTE 244M
SMPTE 259M
SNOW
SOUND ON SYNC
SPECIAL EFFECTS
SPECIAL EFFECTS GENERATORS
SPG
STAIRCASE
STEREO MIXING
STEREO SIMULATION
STILLSTORE
STP
SUPER VHS (S-VHS) / SUPER VIDEO (s-VIDEO)
SVGA / SUPER-VGA
SWEEP
SWITCHER
SXGA
SYNC ON GREEN
SYNC RESTORATION
SYNC STRIPPING
SYNCHRONIZATION (SYNC)
S/PDIF
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SAV
Start of Active Video. A term used in digital component video to indicate the onset of the active line.
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SAW FILTER
A hermetically sealed device, employing SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) technology, which responds only to a very specific bandwidth. It permits a narrow frequency band to pass through while rejecting all other signals. A SAW filter has very steep shoulders cutting out everything that is outside its band of transmission. SAW filters have excellent out-of-band signal rejection quality eliminating, to a great extent, all unnecessary, spurious signals.
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SAW MODULATOR
With the aid of SAW technology special modulation used in TV transmission is easily achieved and a number of transmitting bands can be compressed into close broadcast ranges. An RF modulator utilizing SAW technology, produces a very clean and accurate signal on the screen.
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SCALER
Converts from one video/graphics format to another, changing the scan rates and the way the image is built. A video Scaler has analog video - composite, YC or Component inputs, in PAL, SECAM or NTSC. The signals are digitized, de-interlaced and scaled to the required RGB format signals, then they may be outputted as analog RGB signals (VGA through UXGA for example) after conversion back to analog. Other possible outputs may be an HDTV component signal or a digital format such as DVI. A graphics Scaler converts one graphics format to another (SVGA to SXGA or UXGA to VGA, for example).
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SCALING
Changing the scan rates and signal structure, and conversion of an input signal to another format - analog or digital. A Scaler does this.
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SCAN CONVERTER
A machine that changes the scan rates (sync frequencies and data) of a signal to transform it to another format. If, for example, a VGA signal is to be converted to video, a Scan Converter is needed. The operation is done by converting the analog VGA signal to a digital form using an ADC, reading the information into a RAM memory, rescaling the signals and sync information and converting them back to an analog form using a DAC. Scan converters convert both the sync frequencies and the DATA information simultaneously in order to shift all into another format. Scan Converters are also used in order to match specific monitors to signals of other formats. A good example is in the medical field, where data emerging from medical equipment at non-standard rates (like from Ultra Sound scanners or CT scanners) is to be converted to VGA or video formats for processing or recording. Scan Converters are usually confined to limited formats in order to keep the price low, but there are expensive Scan Converters that convert between a large number of different formats.
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SCART
A European video-audio connector widely used in consumer equipment. The Scart connector has 21 pins, carrying two audio channels - in and out, video channels - in and out, RGB signals, ground and some additional control pins. In order to connect two VCRs or a VCR to a monitor only one Scart-to-Scart cable is needed, avoiding the cable jungle of video and audio inputs and outputs, which may confuse the home user. Simplicity of connections is the main advantage of the Scart system, however, it is not recommended for professional use as the physical connection is quite weak and signal leakage is too high.
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SCREEN SPLITTER
An electronic process, which allows the video screen to be split horizontally or vertically showing the signal before processing on one part of the screen and the processed signal on the other.Full screen splitting provides precise fingertip control of the video enhancement process. Screen splitting is a proprietary process developed by Kramer Electronics. It has been adapted at the consumer level in video processing equipment and is now used worldwide
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SDI
Serial Digital Interface. A format of digital video in serial form, evolving from parallel digital component video, digitized at 4:2:2 ratio. The stream of data is very fast - from 270 Mbits/sec up to 360 Mbits/sec. Other information such as digital AES/EBU audio signals can be embedded in this stream of information.
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SDI CHECK SIGNAL
One of the digital test signals used for testing SDI PLL (Phase Locked Loop) and equalizer circuitry.
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SDTV
Standard Definition Television (or sometimes also known as Standard Digital Television). A digital broadcast format based on digital component video and MPEG2 compression. Usually refers to 480i.
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SEAMLESS SWITCHING
A process that allows replacing one image on a screen with one from another source seamlessly, ie. without creating visual interference or image breakdown. It can be done in the video world using frame synchronized sources and vertical interval switching, and in the presentation world by pre-synchronizing video and data sources and switching them during the vertical interval. Another effective technology is performing the switch via a short black period (Fade To Black Switching).
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SECAM
Sequential Couleur a Memorie. The TV and video standard used in France, Eastern Europe and some Arab countries. The system resembles PAL, however, due to limitations and the complexity of its color encoding, serious video production is almost impossible within the framework of the SECAM system. In countries using the SECAM standard most video production is done using the PAL standard and, prior to transmission, the video is converted to SECAM.
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SEPIA
(рус. Сепия)
A process used in photography to generate a brownish tone in pictures providing an antique appearance. The same idea has been electronically adapted in video special effects generation. A color picture can be converted to sepia tones or a black and white picture can be colored in sepia.
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SERIAL PORT
A computer I.O. (Input-Output) port through which the computer communicates with the external world. The standard serial port is RS-232 based and allows bi-directional communication on a relatively simple wire connection as data flows serially. It is being replaced with the much faster USB (Universal Serial Bus) standard.
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SERIAL TO PARALLEL CONVERTER
A Deserializer which converts between Serial Digital Video and parallel Digital Video, and is mainly used for interfacing the two digital formats.
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SERRATIONS
(рус. Зубцы)
Serrations are short, positive pulses within the vertical sync which are needed for proper synchronization of the video image on a screen. Loss of serration pulses can result in a loss of picture stability, and frequently leads to skewing and color loss in the PAL system.
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SERVO
A very accurate electromechanical or motor control system found in video and audio tape recorders.
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SHUTTLE
A provision available on some VCRs for fast search of frames while playing a video tape.
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SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO
The ratio, in decibels, of the maximum peak-to-peak voltage of a relevant signal in relation to the voltage of all interfering non-relevant noise signals. In audio, the higher the signal-to-noise ratio, the clearer the sound, in video, the better the ratio, the less snow resides in the picture.
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SINE X/X
A video test signal for testing frequency response.
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SKEWING
Due to loss or distortion of equalizing pulses and serrations, mainly in high generation videotapes, the upper third of the video picture may flag sidewise or skew. To overcome the problem at the consumer level the TV is equipped with an AV channel, which, when selected for VCR viewing, changes some time constants in the sync regeneration circuits and allows viewing without skewing. In professional studios this problem is solved using a TBC.
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SMPTE
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. An organization which recommends standards for the film and television industry.
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SMPTE 125M
A standard which defines the interface for system M (525/60) digital television and which is based on CCIR 601. This standard is defined for use in television studios for up to 300m distance. It is a Bit-Parallel digital interface for component video signals at 4:2:2 digitization format.
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SMPTE 244M
A standard which defines the interface for system M/NTSC (525/60) digital television and which is based on CCIR 601. This standard is defined for use in television studios for up to 300m distance. It is a Bit-Parallel digital interface for composite video signals at 4xFsc sampling frequency. This standard defines the sampling parameters, the relationship between sampling phase and color subcarrier and the digital levels of the video signal.
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SMPTE 259M
A standard which describes the serial digital interface for 525/60 and 625/50 digital television equipment, operating at either 4:2:2 component video signal or 4Fsc composite video signal. The standard proposed by the SMPTE is intended for 10 bit digitization schemes.
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SNOW
A general term used to describe interference on a TV or video image. Snow in video is synonymous with chroma and Luma noise. It often manifests itself in a video picture as colored or black and white dots. Snow can result when the chrominance in the video signal is weak or oversaturated, when the signal is over-enhanced, when the video head is dirty or due to a host of other reasons. Good video processors reduce or eliminate snow.
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SOUND ON SYNC
A method of inserting a sound channel into an analog video signal. The sound channel is modulated and ins erted in to the line sync signal. A special device is needed in order to retrieve the audio information. It is a good way to add a sound channel to a video signal (adding a second channel for stereo, for example).
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SPECIAL EFFECTS
Artistic effects added to a video production in order to enhance the viewing of a tape. Special effects may vary from the limited addition of patterns, the mixing of several video images together, completely changing color and texture of the image, to sophisticated digital effects such as shrinking the picture, page flipping, three-dimensional effects, etc. Special effects generators are usually used to create special effects.
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SPECIAL EFFECTS GENERATORS
Devices designed to generate special effects. The simplest devices can process a single video signal - changing its color, generating sepia tones, inverting the picture to a negative form, posterizing the image and fading or breaking up the image into various patterns. More sophisticated equipment utilizes several video sources, computer-generated graphics and sophisticated animation with digital effects. Many special effects generators have a built-in color generator for adding color or border lines to the video image.
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SPG
Sync Pulse Generator, sometimes called Black Burst Generator. A device, which generates sync, burst, subcarrier and other signals and is used as a reference source for video and television studios. Some SPGs generate Color Bars as well, that may be recorded as reference signals at the beginning of a video tape or used for equipment alignment.
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STAIRCASE
A video test signal which generates several signal stairs at different levels (amplitudes) for measuring and evaluating non-linearity.
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STEREO MIXING
Simultaneous mixing and processing of both left and right audio signals.
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STEREO SIMULATION
An electronic process by which a mono audio signal is broken down into two signals, creating a three-dimensional stereophonic effect from a monophonic signal. In many instances, especially in old recordings, it is impossible to re-record the original signal in stereo. In such cases, high quality stereo stimulating circuitry can generate a three-dimensional effect covering the whole audio spectrum in both channels. True stereo simulation is achieved by manipulating the monophonic audio signal on the basis of frequencies and phases, taking into consideration the physical aspects of hearing (distance between the human ears, human frequency hearing response and the psychological perception of sound).
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STILLSTORE
An electronic device for digital capture and playback of TV and video pictures, using a storage device such as a Hard Disk or RAM (Random Access Memory).
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STP
Shielded Twisted Pair. When a twisted pair cable system is used for transmitting signals from one point to the other, the cable pair(s) may be shielded. The shield quite effectively protects the signals from interference, but often has an adverse effect on the transmitted signal bandwidth, reducing it due to the distributed capacitance resulting from the use of the shield. In critical high bandwidth applications, sometimes UTP cables are used.
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SUPER VHS (S-VHS) / SUPER VIDEO (s-VIDEO)
A video system which differs from standard Composite video in several crucial ways. The bandwidth is considerably wider as luminance and chrominance are separated in the signal. This format, named also Y/C, is widely used for production in semi-professional as well as in many broadcast studios. When used with 8 millimeter video tapes it is called Hi-8.
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SVGA / SUPER-VGA
A computer graphics format beyond VGA. Super-VGA displays 16 colors at resolutions of 800x600 and 1024x768 pixels, as well as 256 colors at 640x480 and 800x600 pixels resolution. The 640x480 at 256 colors is the most suitable for video use (after conversion to video) with almost natural colors. The format was extended up to 1280X1024 pixels resolution and 16.7 million colors.
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SWEEP
A video test signal comprised of sine waves of equal amplitudes and linearly changing frequencies used to measure the frequency response of a video device.
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SWITCHER
General term for a device used to route different signals (audio, video, graphics or RF) from various sources to various acceptors. For example, a classic video switcher switches between the pictures from a number of video cameras to one monitor.
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SXGA
Super eXtended Graphics Array. A graphics standard, with a 1280X1024 pixels resolution, using a 5:4 aspect ratio.
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SYNC ON GREEN
A process which adds the synchronization signals to the graphics “green” signal, allowing transfer of graphics information over three cables (Red, Green+Sync and Blue), instead of four (RGBS) or five (RGBHV).
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SYNC RESTORATION
A process which replaces distorted and missing sync information with good synchronization pulses generated by the restoring device. In many instances, during video editing or multiple generation copying, sync pulses are lost or distorted. Sync restorers check the incoming syncs, analyze the frequencies involved and generate new, fully restored syncs, which replace the faulty source syncs.
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SYNC STRIPPING
Sync stripping is an electronic process, done either with discrete components or with special electronic chips, whereby the sync information is separated from the rest of the video information for timing correction, clamping and other purposes.
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SYNCHRONIZATION (SYNC)
A term used in electronics to describe the precise matching of two waves or functions. In television and video, sync is an essential element in the video signal to keep the scanning processes in phase. The sync signal instructs the monitor as to the exact moments at which a frame or line starts and ends. This information is critical for the proper positioning of the image on the screen. When a sync signal is distorted or missing, the picture may lose stability. It may become garbled to the point of total image breakdown. Electronic circuitry in many video processing devices provides sync restoration and correction. Sometimes a TBC is required to recover or restore sync. (See Horizontal and Vertical Sync).
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